This page is for the Java Edition. For the Windows 10 version, see Minecraft: Windows 10 Edition.
-Xms ### MB
-Xmx $$$ MB
java -jar Xms###MB -Xmx$$$MB Minecraft.jar
Java -jar Minecraft.exe
You can now launch Minecraft from Minecraft.bat and everything will be saved in the folder you made. This folder is fully portable so you can move it wherever you like and even put it on external storage to use it on other computers as long as they have Java installed (see Java version). You can make a shortcut to Minecraft.bat on the desktop and so forth to launch it more conveniently.
Feed The Beast (or FTB) is a massive mod pack, combining the more popular Minecraft mods into a complete and easy to use package. All the mods included use the Minecraft Forge API.
Multiple variations of FTB are available to suit different playstyles and needs.
Full details and download links can be found on the official website.