Minecraft: Java Edition

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Although this product has been released, it remains under active development - information may change frequently and could be outdated or irrelevant.

This page is for the Java Edition. For the Windows 10 version, see Minecraft: Bedrock Edition.

Minecraft: Java Edition
Minecraft: Java Edition cover
Developers
Mojang
Engines
LWJGL
Java
Release dates
Windows November 18, 2011
macOS (OS X) November 18, 2011
Linux November 18, 2011
Reception
Metacritic 93
IGDB 84
Taxonomy
Microtransactions None
Modes Singleplayer, Multiplayer
Perspectives First-person
Genres Survival, Open world
Art styles Voxel art
Series Minecraft
Minecraft: Java Edition on IGDB
Minecraft: Java Edition guide on StrategyWiki
Minecraft: Java Edition on MobyGames
Minecraft: Java Edition on Wikipedia
Minecraft
Minecraft 2011
Minecraft: Pi Edition 2013
Minecraft: Story Mode (series)
Minecraft: Education Edition 2016
Minecraft: Bedrock Edition 2016
Minecraft Dungeons 2020
Minecraft Legends 2023

Minecraft, later known as Minecraft Java Edition, is a first-person survival sandbox game developed by Mojang and published by Microsoft and relased on November 18, 2011 for Windows, OS X and Linux.

A successor Minecraft: Bedrock Edition was written in C++ and released December 19, 2016.

In 2021, users will be required to migrate their Mojang account to a Microsoft account.[1]

Key points

Active and dedicated modding scene, responsible for many fixes, tools and additional content.
Without mods, likely to perform worse than the Windows 10 Edition on low-end hardware.[2][3]

General information

Official Bug Tracker
Minecraft Help Center

Availability[edit]

Source DRM Notes Keys OS
Official website
Windows
macOS (OS X)
Linux
Amazon.com (unavailable)
Windows
macOS (OS X)
Linux
Amazon.co.uk
Windows
macOS (OS X)
Linux
Microsoft Store
Microsoft Store
Included in Xbox Game Pass for PC, and is not sold separately without Game Pass.
Windows
All versions require a Mojang Account or Minecraft Account.[4]
Purchase includes access to Minecraft: Bedrock Edition.[5]

Free trial[edit]

A free trial is available.

Essential improvements[edit]

Utilities[edit]

  • MultiMC - a custom open source launcher. It allows to have multiple, separate instances of Minecraft, each with their own mods, texture packs, saves, etc.
  • PolyMC - a fork of MultiMC with a built-in mod downloader and installer for Modrinth and CurseForge mods, Quilt support, better linux packaging, proper Microsoft Account support on linux, and more community-centric.

Mods[edit]

Mod Loaders[edit]

  • Forge is required by most mods, and is the standard for a modded setup. Can be automatically installed with the 'Install Forge' option in MultiMC or PolyMC. Incompatible with Fabric.
  • Fabric is required for many mods for Minecraft 1.14 and above. Can be automatically installed with the 'Install Fabric' option in MultiMC or PolyMC. Incompatible with Forge.
  • Quilt is a hard-fork of Fabric, focusing on a faster development pace and being more community-centric. Can be automatically installed with the 'Install Quilt' option in PolyMC. Incompatible with Forge.

Mods[edit]

  • OptiFine is a proprietary optimization mod, which also adds support for HD textures, shader packs, and graphical improvements. Compatible with Forge natively and Fabric through OptiFabric. Incompatible with Sodium.
  • Performant is a proprietary general-purpose optimization mod for Forge that focuses on optimizing entities and block updates along with adding mechanisms to handle and reduce lag. Requires Forge on 1.14.4+. Incompatible with Lithium or Lithium ports, such as Roadrunner.
  • The Sodium Collection is a collection of open source optimization mods that improve performance even more so than OptiFine and Performant, but only work with 1.16+. Out of the box they do not have as much functionality as OptiFine, but LambdAurora's list of OptiFine alternatives or the Fabulously Optimized modpack (inspired by that list) can be used to match or exceed OptiFine's feature-set. Requires Fabric or Quilt, incompatible with OptiFine. The main mods are:
  • FerriteCore is an open source memory usage optimization mod. The Sodium team used to make a competing mod called Hydrogen, but they now recommend this mod instead. Requires Fabric or Quilt on 1.16.5+.
  • Starlight is an open source lighting engine optimization mod that claims to have much better performance than Phosphor. Incompatible with Phosphor. Requires Fabric or Quilt on 1.15.2+.
  • Fabulously Optimized is a modpack that includes many of the above listed mods, such as Sodium, Lithium, FerriteCore, Starlight, and Iris (for Shader Pack support), as well as dozens of other optimization and graphics mods. It is inspired by LambdAurora's list of OptiFine alternatives, and which mods to include are now usually decided by community votes on their github page. Requires Fabric or Quilt on 1.16.5+.

Java version[edit]

The Windows version of Minecraft includes Java (used for Minecraft only). Installing Java manually is not necessary.
Minecraft benefits from using the latest version of Java. Using 64-bit Java on 64-bit operating systems is strongly recommended.[6]

RAM allocation[edit]

The official launcher allows to easily allocate RAM and set other Java arguments. The manual methods are detailed below.
OS X memory allocation[citation needed]
  1. Right-click on Minecraft.app in Finder and choose Show Package Contents.
  2. Go to Contents and open info.plist using TextEdit.
  3. Modify -Xms ### MB - replace ### with the minimum amount of memory Minecraft can use (in megabytes).
  4. Modify -Xmx $$$ MB - replace $$$ with the maximum amount of memory Minecraft can use (in megabytes).
Linux memory allocation[citation needed]
  1. Go to the location of Minecraft.jar.
  2. Run the command java -jar Xms###MB -Xmx$$$MB Minecraft.jar
    • Replace ### with the minimum amount of memory Minecraft can use (in megabytes).
    • Replace $$$ with the maximum amount of memory Minecraft can use (in megabytes).

Game data[edit]

In-game general settings.
In-game general settings.

Configuration file(s) location[edit]

System Location
Windows %APPDATA%\.minecraft\options.txt
macOS (OS X) ~/Library/Application Support/minecraft/options.txt
Linux ~/.minecraft/options.txt
launcher_profiles.json contains stored user profiles.
This game does not follow the XDG Base Directory Specification on Linux.

Save game data location[edit]

System Location
Windows %APPDATA%\.minecraft\saves
macOS (OS X) ~/Library/Application Support/minecraft/saves
Linux ~/.minecraft/saves
The server save is stored in world in the root directory of the server.
Saves are not compatible with Minecraft: Bedrock Edition.[7]

Save game cloud syncing[edit]

System Native Notes
Xbox Cloud

Video[edit]

In-game video settings.
In-game video settings.

Graphics feature State WSGF Notes
Widescreen resolution
Multi-monitor
Can be stretched to any window size.
Ultra-widescreen
4K Ultra HD
Field of view (FOV)
Limited to 30-110°. Can be set to any value by editing the configuration files. See Field of view (FOV).
Windowed
Set in options or toggle with F11.
Borderless fullscreen windowed
Use Borderless Gaming with regex: Minecraft (\d+\.\d+\.\d+|\d+w\d+\w).[8] 1.13+ has native support.[9]
Anisotropic filtering (AF)
Anti-aliasing (AA)
Custom resource packs can be used when Fabulous graphics is enabled. Alternatively, use a shader pack with Fabulously Optimized (specifically, Iris), or see OptiFine.
Vertical sync (Vsync)
60 FPS and 120+ FPS
Frame rate cap is fully configurable.
High dynamic range display (HDR)
See the glossary page for potential alternatives.
Ray tracing
Requires shader mods.
Color blind mode
Custom resource packs can be used.

Field of view (FOV)[edit]

Dynamic FOV can be disabled in Minecraft 1.16+ in Accessibility Settings.
Set custom FOV[citation needed]
  1. Go to the configuration file(s) location.
  2. Edit options.txt.
  3. Find fov and modify its value.

Notes

1.0 = 110° FOV, 1.25 = 120°, 1.5 = 130°, 1.75 = 140°, 2.0 = 150°.

Input[edit]

In-game controls settings.
In-game controls settings.
In-game mouse settings.
In-game mouse settings.

Mouse acceleration[edit]

Disable Windows mouse acceleration[11]
Minecraft uses a Windows function to control mouse movement, which can be modified.
Modifying the function affects any software that relies on it (not just Minecraft).
  1. Download the MarkC Mouse Acceleration Fix. Extract its contents to a new folder.
  2. Open the Start menu and open the Control panel. Select Display from the list.
  3. Check the PC's text size (100%, 125%, 150%) in the display settings.
  4. Open the folder created in step 1. Open the sub-folder that fits the operating system.
  5. Double-click the .reg file that corresponds with the text display percentage. Confirm the changes to registry.
  6. Reboot the PC.

Audio[edit]

In-game audio settings.
In-game audio settings.

Audio feature State Notes
Separate volume controls
Detailed separate volume sliders
Surround sound
Up to 7.0 output.[12]
Subtitles
No spoken dialog in game. Subtitles do show sounds.
Closed captions
Most sounds have their own individual subtitles.
Mute on focus lost
Automatically pauses on focus lost, except in multiplayer.

Localizations

Localization is done by the community via Crowdin. An up-to-date page of all supported languages can be found here
A few joke "languages" are available as well, such as Pirate Speak, Shakespearean English, Klingon etc.
Language UI Audio Sub Notes
English
Includes localizations for Australia, Canada, UK, USA and New Zealand
Afrikaans
Albanian
Arabic
Armenian
Asturian
Azerbaijani
Bashkir
Belarusian
Bosnian
Bulgarian
Catalan
Available in variants: Catalan and Valencian
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Cornish
Croatian
Czech
Dutch
Includes localizations for Netherlands, Belgium, and Brabant
Estonian
Faroese
Filipino
Finnish
French
Canadian French
Frisian
Galician
Georgian
German
Includes localizations for Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Bavaria, Upper Saxon, Franconia, and northern Germany (Low German)
Greek
Hebrew
Hindi
Hungarian
Icelandic
Igbo
Indonesian
Irish
Italian
Available in variants: Italian, Lombardian, Friulian, and Venetian
Japanese
Kannada
Kazakh
Korean
Kurdish
Latin
Latvian
Lithuanian
Luxembourgish
Macedonian
Malay
Maltese
Mongolian
Nepali
Northern Sami
Norwegian
Available in variants: Non-descript (i.e. Bokmål) and Nynorsk
Persian
Polish
Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
Ripuarian
Romanian
Russian
Scottish Gaelic
Serbian
Cyrillic orthography
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish
Latin American Spanish
Includes localizations for Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Ecuador
Polish
Regular Polish and Silesian
Swedish
Regular Swedish and Elfdalian
Tagalog
Tamil
Tatar
Thai
Turkish
Ukrainian
Valencian
Vietnamese
Welsh
Yiddish
Yoruba

Network[edit]

In-game chat settings.
In-game chat settings.
Requires a Mojang Account or Minecraft Account.[4]
Multiplayer is not compatible with Minecraft: Bedrock Edition.[10]

Multiplayer types

Type Native Players Notes
Local play
2147483647 Usable with the Joypad mod.
Max players is capped to the max integer size in Java.[13]
LAN play
8 Maximum 8 players
Online play
2147483647 Max players is capped to the max integer size in Java.[13]

Connection types

Ports

Protocol Port(s) and/or port range(s)
TCP 25565
UDP 25565
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) support status is unknown.

VR support[edit]

3D modes Native Notes
Native 3D
3D Anaglyph support removed in 1.13 and above.
Nvidia 3D Vision
See Helix Mod: Minecraft 1.7.10 in 3D Vision.
Headsets Native Notes
HTC Vive
Use Vivecraft or Minecrift Vive.
Oculus Rift
Can also use Vivecraft or Minecrift.
OSVR
Windows Mixed Reality
Use Vivecraft or Minecrift Vive.
Devices Native Notes
Tracked motion controllers
Use Vivecraft or Minecrift Vive.
See Input for details.
Traditional controller
See Input for details.
Keyboard/Mouse
Play area Native Notes
Seated
Standing
Room-scale
Use Vivecraft or Minecrift Vive.

Steam Deck[edit]

Minecraft is not available through SteamOS, but can be installed manually. Minecraft can be played through a launcher such as PolyMC (a fork of MultiMC).

Install Minecraft using PolyMC[14]
  1. Press Power then select Switch to Desktop
  2. Open Discover
  3. Search for and install PolyMC
  4. Log into Minecraft account (Mojang or Microsoft)
  5. Within PolyMC, open Settings → Minecraft, enable Close PolyMC after game window opens
  6. Within Steam, click Games → Add a Non-Steam Game to My Library, add PolyMC
  7. Return to Gaming Mode → Library → Non-Steam and launch PolyMC

Issues fixed[edit]

Mojang has created an Official Bug Tracker that can be used to find or report bugs.

Graphical issues[edit]

Black borders on Blocks[1]
Disable forced anisotropic filtering in the graphics card options menu, and only use the in-game Mip Maps settings.

Other information[edit]

API[edit]

Technical specs Supported Notes
OpenGL 3.2, 4.4, 4.5
ExecutablePPC 32-bit 64-bitARM Notes
Windows
macOS (OS X)
PowerPC is only known to support up to 1.5.2, due to Java ≥6 not having PowerPC versions.[15] ARM requires m1-multimc-hack and the MultiMC or PolyMC launchers.
Linux
PowerPC support for recent Minecraft versions require the MultiMC or PolyMC launchers.[16] ARM requires Optifine.[17]

System requirements[edit]

Windows
Minimum[18] Recommended
Operating system (OS) 7
Processor (CPU) Intel Core i3-3210 3.2 GHz
AMD A8-7600 3.1 GHz
System memory (RAM) 2 GB
Hard disk drive (HDD) 1 GB
Video card (GPU) Nvidia GeForce 400 series
AMD Radeon HD 7000 series
Intel HD Graphics 4000
AMD Radeon R5 series
OpenGL 4.4 compatible
Shader model 5.0 support
macOS (OS X)
Minimum[18] Recommended
Operating system (OS) 10.14.5 (Mojave)
Processor (CPU) Intel Core i3-3210 3.2 GHz
AMD A8-7600 3.1 GHz
System memory (RAM) 2 GB
Hard disk drive (HDD) 1 GB
Video card (GPU) Nvidia GeForce 400 series
AMD Radeon HD 7000 series
Intel HD Graphics 4000
AMD Radeon R5 series
OpenGL 4.4 compatible
Shader model 5.0 support
PowerPC support was retired with version 1.6.
Linux
Minimum Recommended
Operating system (OS) 3.0
Processor (CPU) Intel Core i3-3210 3.2 GHz
AMD A8-7600 3.1 GHz
System memory (RAM) 2 GB
Hard disk drive (HDD) 1 GB
Video card (GPU) Nvidia GeForce 400 series
AMD Radeon HD 7000 series
Intel HD Graphics 4000
AMD Radeon R5 series
OpenGL 4.4 compatible
Shader model 5.0 support
Other Any modern distro

References

  1. Mojang games to require Microsoft account - last accessed on 2020-10-22
    "Users will need a Microsoft account to play Mojang games going forward, the Minecraft developer announced. The change will also impact Minecraft Java Edition, the studio clarified, and is mandatory for everyone who's been using a Mojang account or a legacy Minecraft account to play. Players failing to comply will be unable to log in later down the line. The migration will start in early 2021, while new players will be required to create a Microsoft account rather than a Mojang one from this fall."
  2. Minecraft: Java Edition vs Windows 10 | PC Gamer
  3. Minecraft Java Edition and Bedrock Edition are coming to Xbox Game Pass for PC - last accessed on 2021-10-17
    "Java Edition is also much more demanding on your hardware, which is why you might want to check out Bedrock Edition, which is the multiplatform, cross-play, and gamepad compatible version of the game."
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mojang | Do I log in with my email or username?
  5. | Minecraft: Java & Bedrock Edition FAQ
  6. http://www.minecraftforum.net/topic/269042-java-7-massive-minecraft-performance-boost/
  7. Minecraft: Windows 10 Edition Beta - Microsoft Store
  8. Post your feature request here :: Borderless Gaming General Discussions
  9. New borderless fullscreen feature is not borderless fullscreen - last accessed on 2020-04-26
    "Possible issues"
  10. 10.0 10.1 Announcing: Minecraft: Windows 10 Edition Beta
  11. http://donewmouseaccel.blogspot.com/2010/03/markc-windows-7-mouse-acceleration-fix.html
  12. PC Gaming Surround Sound Round-up
  13. 13.0 13.1 Arqade - What is the maximum number of players on a Minecraft/Bukkit server? - last accessed on 2019-03-02
  14. Minecraft Guide for the Steam Deck - YouTube - last accessed on 2022-03-15
  15. Minecraft 1.2.5 and 1.5.2 for PowerPC - last accessed on 2020-11-28
  16. Minecraft Java Edition (LWJGL being ported) - last accessed on 2020-11-28
  17. How to setup Minecraft 1.15.2 on Pi4 - last accessed on 2020-11-21
  18. 18.0 18.1 Minecraft Help Center - Minecraft: Java Edition Installation Issues FAQ