Graphics and video
For a list of games, see games with vertical sync (Vsync) support.
Vertical synchronization is an option used to prevent screen tearing. Screen tearing is a graphical glitch which is perceived as straight horizontal lines across the monitor or as if the whole picture is stitched together by two or more separate pictures. This problem exists because the monitor and the graphics adapter normally works independently, so new frames may not be fully drawn when the monitor display them. Vsync makes the graphics adapter wait for the monitor to signal it's ready for the next frame to ensure all displayed frames are always fully drawn. This has the positive side effect of limiting the amount of frames per second the computer has to draw to the monitor refresh rate (the amount of frames per second the monitor is able to display) which saves resources. Unfortunately Vsync can also increase input lag.
With double buffering the GPU waits for the most recently rendered frame to get displayed before beginning work on the next frame. With the "older" form of triple buffering, the GPU starts working on the next frame after that in the third buffer and if that new frame completes first, that frame gets displayed next and the other frame in between gets discarded. However with most modern DirectX games, the "triple buffering" option is instead implemented as a sequential frame queue.
Adaptive V-Sync (late V-Sync, dynamic V-Sync) is Nvidia's name for their technology that dynamically toggles V-Sync behavior on or off depending on the frame rate. When the frame rate reaches or exceeds the refresh rate, vertical sync is enabled to eliminate screen tearing at the cost of higher input latency. When the frame rate falls below the refresh rate, vertical sync is disabled to minimize stuttering and decrease input latency at the cost of screen tearing.
There is none and results will vary between different games, systems and people. If you're bothered by tearing or want the best visual quality, enable Vsync. If you're bothered by input lag or have performance problems, try Triple buffering for reduced input lag or completely disable Vsync for no input lag. If you're playing first-person shooters competitively, always disable.
Using frame limiting 1-2 FPS below the refresh rate in conjunction with Vsync can also be used as a more responsive (for as much as imperfect) tearing solution, although at the potential cost of introducing a periodic stutter.
Note that Vsync should not be used only as an FPS limit. If you only want to limit FPS drawn, for example to minimize heat and fan noise, but are not bothered by tearing and don't want to risk input lag, simply limit your FPS to that of your monitor's refresh rate or close to it. An FPS limit is often an option available as an in-game console command or similar.
strangle <number> path/to/game
VSYNC=<0/1 or higher>