From PCGamingWiki, the wiki about fixing PC games

{{Term}} is meant to be used for commonly used technical terms by adding helpful mouse-over text and can also have link that explains the term. Some terms are case independent, to allow the use of both uppercase and lowercase characters to fit what's necessary in the context it is used. Examples include pillarbox, stretched, no scaling.





  • DRM - Digital rights management: Commonly used to refer to copy protection and/or technical protection measures employed by companies in an attempt to limit the manipulation and copying of game data and content by end-users after the purchase, download, and/or install of the product.
  • FMV - Full motion video: Pre-recorded video files used in games to present information during intros, cutscenes, or similar scenarios.


  • HMD - Head-mounted display: A display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet, that has a small display optic in front of one or each eye. A head-mounted display is the primary component of virtual reality headsets.


  • SDR - Standard dynamic range: Traditional color range for displays
  • HDR - High dynamic range: Allows a game which has rendered lighting in a higher dynamic range to output an expanded color space on compatible displays compared to what is possible on standard definition range displays
  • HDR Rendering - High-dynamic-range rendering: Lighting calculations are rendered in a higher dynamic range (HDR)
    • Supported variation: HDRR

Scaling behavior

  • Hor+ - Horizontal Plus: Field of view expands horizontally for wider aspect ratios. This is the optimal scaling behavior for games when faced with wider aspect resolutions.
  • Vert- - Vertical Minus: Field of view reduces vertically for wider aspect ratios. This is one of the more common scaling behaviors used in games.
  • Hor- - Horizontal Minus: Field of view reduces horizontally for wider aspect ratios. This behavior is very rarely used.
  • Vert+ - Vertical Plus: Field of view expands vertically for wider aspect ratios. This behavior is very rarely used.
  • Letterbox - Letterbox: The game has a fixed vertical aspect ratio; narrower aspect ratios gets filled with horizontal black bars on top and bottom. Multi-monitor resolutions are often pillarboxed instead.
    • Supported variation: letterboxed, letterboxing
  • Pillarbox - Pillarbox: The game has a fixed horizontal aspect ratio; wider aspect ratios gets filled with vertical black bars on left and right.
    • Supported variation: pillarboxed, pillarboxing
  • Static Aspect - Maintain aspect ratio: Stretches as large as possible, but maintains a fixed aspect ratio (usually 4:3 for older games and 16:9 for newer games) on resolutions of other aspect ratios by filling black bars as necessary in either pillarbox (vertical black bars on left and right) if the fixed aspect ratio is narrower or letterbox (horizontal black bars on top and bottom) if wider.
  • Pixel-based - Pixel-based: No scaling is applied, though the field of view is extended to show more of the game world. Visible area depends on the resolution rather than the aspect ratio, with higher resolutions showing more of the game world at once.
  • Pixel-perfect - Pixel-perfect: Multiplies original resolution as large as possible while maintaining pixel-perfect rendering aspect below the screen resolution, then applies no scaling on resulting image. Also known as integer-ratio scaling.
    • Supported variation (both with and without "-"): integer-ratio, integer-scaled, integer-scale, integer-scaling
  • Stretch - Stretch: Stretches as large as possible while ignoring aspect ratio differences. This resulting in vertically or horizontally stretched objects and other visual problems when stretched to non-targeted aspect ratios.
    • Supported variation: stretched
  • No scaling - No Scaling: Does not scale the image at all, keeping default size in pixels, centering it in the middle of the screen. Extremely uncommon.
    • Supported variation: windowboxing, windowboxed, windowbox, center, centered

Scaling algorithm

  • Nearest-neighbor - Scaling algorithm: The cheapest and most simple algorithm to use when resizing between resolutions. Typically introduces aliasing when enlarging an image using improper fractions. Does not account for the aspect ratio of each individual pixel, which may result in different rows or columns of pixels being wider than others unless a pixel-perfect output resolution is used.